b'give you a yeast infection). Mushrooms and seaweed (containing another complex poly-saccharide, fucoidan) also induce immunity via their glucan polysaccharides.Glucans Act As Training Agents to Amplify the Immune ResponseTrainedimmunityhappensinde-pendently of T cells and B cells. In other words, the first-responsive innate immune cells (mostly macrophages, monocytes) can acquire properties normally attributed to the secondary-responsive adaptive immune system that produces long-term memory immunity via T-cells and B-cells. This is ground-breaking news!Researchers explain trained immunity as the process by which innate immune cells undergo functional reprogramming afterBeta-glucan has been shown to reduceta-glucan, almost amazingly, inhibits blood certain stimulations/infections [beta-glu- the severity of a cold within the firstplateletsfromsticking,thatis,forming can], to mount a de facto immune memoryweek of infection. In a controlled study,blood clots. And even more striking is that that supports long-term altered immunebeta-glucan consumed in a beverage re- beta-glucan reduces emotional stress and responses. duced the maximum duration of upperanxiety, something that accompanies every respiratory infections from 49 to 27 daysdisease.Great Importance with fewer sore throats among healthyBeta-glucandietarysupplementsare The old but recently re-recognized dis- adults. sold all over the World and a number of covery that innate-immune cells (mono- beta-glucan supplements have earned the cytes,macrophages)retainamemoryOnly 10% of women taking beta-glucanright to make certain health claims.from prior bacterial, viral, and fungal chal- experienced sore throat, stuffy, or runny lenges is of great importance. When thesenose or cough compared to 29% in theStand-Alone Beta-Glucantrained[whiteblood]cellsthencomecomparison group. The aforementioned report by University into contact with heterologous [different]of Louisville researchers, as published in secondary stimuli [beta-glucan] they areBeta-glucan-treated mice exhibited bet- July of 2020 in the journal Frontiers in Im-programmed to produce a more robust im- ter survival after being exposed to lethalmunology, says there is strong evidence mune response. doses of Candida albicans, a yeast infec- in support of beta-glucan as remedy for The first evidence of long-lasting innatetion. COVID-19independentofitsroleasa immunity in humans emerged from obser- vaccine adjuvant. In other words, it can vation of populations immunized with theThe protection from infectious diseasestand alone and fight the virus. Beta-glucan BCG tuberculosis vaccine. Immunity wasafforded by oral beta-glucan may not seemdoesnt just reduce the sniffles, it has been conferred from unrelated pathogens. Notso stupendous, but that may be due to theshown to reduce mortality rates from infec-only immunity from other non-TB respi- variable quality of beta-glucan supplementstious disease (in an experimental animal ratory infections and sepsis, but also from(discussed below). influenza study). melanoma skin cancer. Researchers in France echo the University Societal Benefits of Louisville investigators and posit that The Science Behind Beta-Glucan The University of Louisville-based re- beta-glucan can also work synergistically What does the science say about beta-glu- searchers underscore the societal advan- with Vitamin C and Vitamin D to promote can? tagesoforalbeta-glucan,namely,thehuman health.avoidance of overwhelming the healthcare Onestudyshowedthatbeta-glucansystem in a pandemic, beta-glucans highReverse Macrophage Lazinessreduces the duration of common coldsafety profile compared to vaccines, andBeta-glucanalsoreversessomething symptoms by 37%. its known ability to mimic broad immunitycalled macrophage tolerance (laziness). produced by the BCG vaccine. After initial exposure of monocytes and A study of 97 healthy medical studentsmacrophages to toxins or germs, a state for 90 days resulted in 43 fewer days ofMore Health Benefits of hypo-responsiveness is commonly ob-cold symptoms. Beta-glucanhasalreadybeenusedasserved, which is called tolerance. While an adjuvant to vaccines. Furthermore, be- tolerance protects tissues against damage H ealtHF reedomN ews /F all2021 15'